Some gynecologists gave the opinion that women were less "marriageable" if they were less "feminine", as the husband would be unhappy in his marriage.

In Frame’s book, she also wrote that the appearance of flappers, like the short hair and short dress, distracted attention from feminine curves to the legs and body.

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With legal saloons and cabarets closed, back alley speakeasies became prolific and popular.

This discrepancy between the law-abiding, religion-based temperance movement and the actual ubiquitous consumption of alcohol led to widespread disdain for authority.

By 1912, the London theatrical impresario John Tiller, defining the word in an interview he gave to the New York Times, described a "flapper" as belonging to a slightly older age group, a girl who has "just come out".

In polite society at the time, a teenage girl who had not "come out" would still be classed as a child.

By that time, the term had taken on the full meaning of the flapper generation style and attitudes.

The use of the term coincided with a fashion among teenage girls in the United States in the early 1920s for wearing unbuckled galoshes, and a widespread false etymology held that they were called "flappers" because they flapped when they walked, as they wore their overshoes or galoshes unfastened, showing that they defied convention in a manner similar to the 21st century fad for untied shoelaces.Flapper independence was also a response to the Gibson girls of the 1890s. Scott Fitzgerald and Anita Loos and illustrators such as Russell Patterson, John Held, Jr., Ethel Hays and Faith Burrows popularized the flapper look and lifestyle through their works, and flappers came to be seen as attractive, reckless, and independent.Among those who criticized the flapper craze was writer-critic Dorothy Parker, who penned "Flappers: A Hate Song" to poke fun at the fad.The sketch is of a girl in a frock with a long skirt,"which has the waistline quite high and semi-Empire, ...quite untrimmed, its plainness being relieved by a sash knotted carelessly around the skirt." By November 1910, the word was popular enough for A. James to begin a series of stories in the London Magazine featuring the misadventures of a pretty fifteen-year-old girl and titled "Her Majesty the Flapper".Flappers had their origins in the liberal period of the Roaring Twenties, the social, political turbulence and increased transatlantic cultural exchange that followed the end of World War I, as well as the export of American jazz culture to Europe.