Dating a third year resident
This is usually for an indefinite period; a person with such status is known as a permanent resident.
Permanent residency itself is distinct from right of abode, which waives immigration control for such persons.
In particular, under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australia and New Zealand grant each other's citizens the right to reside permanently and work in each country; however, the rights and entitlements of New Zealanders living in Australia under this arrangement (the so-called Special Category Visa) are somewhat short of those of Australian permanent residents, in particular with respect to unemployment benefits and similar benefits.
People who are granted permanent residency in a country are usually issued some sort of documentary evidence as legal proof of this status.
In some cases, permanent residency may be conditional on a certain type of employment or maintenance of a business.
Many countries have compulsory military service for citizens.
Some countries, such as Singapore, extend this to permanent residents.
However, in Singapore, most first generation permanent residents are exempted, and only their sons are held liable for NS.
In a similar approach, the United States has Selective Service, a compulsory registration for military service, which is required of all male citizens and permanent residents ages 18 to 26; this requirement theoretically applies even to those residing in the country illegally.
Applications for citizenship may be denied or otherwise impeded if the applicant cannot prove having complied with this requirement.
In the past, many countries merely stamped the person's passport indicating that the holder was admitted as a permanent resident or that he/she was exempt from immigration control and permitted to work without restriction.
Other countries would issue a photo ID card, place a visa sticker or certificate of residence in the person's passport, or issue a letter to confirm their permanent resident status.
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