When an organism dies it ceases to replenish carbon in its tissues and the decay of carbon 14 to nitrogen 14 changes the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14.Experts can compare the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in dead material to the ratio when the organism was alive to estimate the date of its death.

How long does the pipe have to be to ensure that there is only 10% of the pollutants left in the kerosene?

This means that we need a pipe that is 10.3 feet long in order for the pollutants to be reduced to 10% of their starting amount.

Archaeologists use the exponential, radioactive decay of carbon 14 to estimate the death dates of organic material.

The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles.

Ionization Inverse Square Law Interaction of RT/Matter Attenuation Coefficient Half-Value Layer Sources of Attenuation -Compton Scattering Geometric Unsharpness Filters in Radiography Scatter/Radiation Control Radiation Safety Radio-carbon dating is a method of obtaining age estimates on organic materials.

The word "estimates" is used because there is a significant amount of uncertainty in these measurements.

One specific example of exponential decay is purified kerosene, used for jet fuel.

The kerosene is purified by removing pollutants, using a clay filter.

Radiocarbon dating estimates can be obtained on wood, charcoal, marine and freshwater shells, bone and antler, and peat and organic-bearing sediments.

They can also be obtained from carbonate deposits such as tufa, calcite, marl, dissolved carbon dioxide, and carbonates in ocean, lake and groundwater sources.

So, the fossil is 8,680 years old, meaning the living organism died 8,680 years ago.