Large-scale CCTV installations have played a key part of the defences against terrorism since the 1970s.

Images of web cameras private-20

It also found that CCTV could decrease unruly behaviour in football stadiums and theft in supermarkets/mass merchant stores.

However, there was no evidence of CCTV having desirable effects in parking facilities or suburban subway stations.

A study by Nieto in 2008 found many businesses in the United States had invested heavily in video surveillance technology to protect products and promote safe workplace and consumer environments.

A nationwide survey of a wide variety of companies found that 75 percent utilize CCTV surveillance.

First, researchers have argued that the British car park studies included in the meta-analysis cannot accurately control for the fact that CCTV was introduced simultaneously with a range of other security-related measures.

It has been argued that problems of selection bias and endogeneity can be adressed by stronger research designs such as randomized controlled trials and natural experiments.A 2017 review published in Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention compiles seven studies that use such research designs.The studies included in the review found that CCTV reduced crime by 24-28% in public streets and urban subway stations.Even so, there is political hostility to surveillance and several commentators downplay the evidence of CCTV's effectiveness, especially in the US.Gill and Spriggs did a Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of CCTV in crime prevention that showed little monetary saving with the installation of CCTV as most of the crimes prevented resulted in little monetary loss.In private sector CCTV surveillance technology is operated in a wide variety of establishments such as in industry/manufacturing, retailing, financial/insurance/banking, transportation and distribution, utilities/communications, health care, and hotels/motels.