The Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee) lists abolition of age of consent laws among its immediate demands, with the added provision that there be alternate legal methods to protect children from sexual abuse.

In January 2004, a Division bench of the Kerala's High Court in Southern India suggested that the age of consent should be raised from 16 to 18 in that state. Basant said he considered "illogic(al)" that a legal system in which an age of 18 is used for other purposes – like the Indian Majority Act, the Contract Act, the Juvenile Justice Act, the Child Marriage Restraint Act and the Representation of People Act – has a different approach in the case of sexual consent.

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He also discussed the possibility of raising the age of consent from 16 to 18 but a bill was not produced for that. Prior to 1981 Wisconsin had an exception to the law that allowed adults who were guilty of sex with minors 15 or older to use as a defense that the victim understood the nature of the sexual act, but there was a rebuttable presumption in Wisconsin that minors under the age of 18 were not capable of informed consent to sex, but as stated, this could be argued against by the defendant in the court of law if the minor was 15 years of age or older.

In 1981 the age of consent was lowered from 18 to 16 in Wisconsin, but at the same time it was made an automatic felony to have sex with anyone under 16, informed consent for a 15-year-old was no longer a defense an adult defendant could use in court.

In 1978 the petition was discussed in a broadcast by radio France Culture in the program "Dialogues", with the transcript later published under the title Sexual Morality and the Law in a book by Michel Foucault.

The participants, including Foucault, play-writer/actor Jean Danet and novelist/gay activist Guy Hocquenghem had all signed the petition.

In 1976, the British political advocacy group the National Council for Civil Liberties (now known as Liberty) published a proposal advocating reducing the age of consent laws to 10 years of age, only when both individuals are younger than 14, with a close-in-age exemption of two years if one of the involved individuals is older than 14 but younger than 16.

The report was signed by Harriet Harman, who later went on to become a prominent figure in government and deputy leader of the Labour Party and the focus of media attention due to her affiliations with the NCCL.

Romeo and Juliet laws were passed in 2007 in Connecticut and Indiana. Limon case, Kansas's Romeo and Juliet law was found to be unconstitutional because it excluded same-sex sexual conduct.

Some countries other than the United States also have Romeo and Juliet laws.

There have been many initiatives to raise the age of consent.

Gratian, a canon lawyer in the 12th century, stated that consent could not take place before 7 years of age.

Some pedophiles have called to abolish the age of consent to allow adults to have sex freely with prepubescent children, arguing they can consent.